Here is some important research on the benefits of “nondirective meditation,” a type of effortless mindfulness in which the mind is not focused on an object.
While “concentrative meditation” can be helpful at times, specific forms of nondirective meditation are essential for insight and transformation. Concentrative meditations tends to be fairly dualistic. Our interest ultimately is in uncovering our natural nondual awareness.
The instructions offered at my retreats and workshops typically utilize specific forms of inquiry that can be more closely associated with nondirective meditation than with concentrative meditation.